Clay Stories: Contemporary Indigenous Ceramics from Remote Australia by Jess Booth

Pots Drying in the Sun, Hermannsburg Potters. Photo courtesy Hermannsburg Potters.

Pots Drying in the Sun, Hermannsburg Potters. Photo courtesy Hermannsburg Potters.

What began as a series of workshops with artists in the community of Ernabella has grown into a nation-wide survey of Indigenous ceramics practice. Clay Stories: Contemporary Indigenous Ceramics from Remote Australia, a touring exhibition currently on display at Jam Factory: Seppeltsfield, is presented by Sabbia Gallery in partnership with the Remote Communities Ceramic Network.

Landscape surrounding Ernabella Arts, South Australia. Photo courtesy Ernabella Arts.

Landscape surrounding Ernabella Arts, South Australia. Photo courtesy Ernabella Arts.

Artist Carlene Thompson from Ernabella Arts. Photo courtesy Rhett Hammerton.

Artist Carlene Thompson from Ernabella Arts. Photo courtesy Rhett Hammerton.

Arists Judith Pungkarta Inkamala from Hermannsburg Potters. Photo courtesy Jason McCarthy, National Museum of Australia.

Arists Judith Pungkarta Inkamala from Hermannsburg Potters. Photo courtesy Jason McCarthy, National Museum of Australia.

Western MacDonnell Ranges, landscape surrounding Hermannsburg Potters. Photo courtesy Jason McCarthy, National Museum of Australia.

Western MacDonnell Ranges, landscape surrounding Hermannsburg Potters. Photo courtesy Jason McCarthy, National Museum of Australia.

Hayley Panangka Coulthard, Palm Valley Into the Night. Photo courtesy Sabbia Gallery.

Hayley Panangka Coulthard, Palm Valley Into the Night. Photo courtesy Sabbia Gallery.

Hayley Panangka Coulthard, Looking for Katjirra (Bush Raisins). Photo courtesy Sabbia Gallery.

Hayley Panangka Coulthard, Looking for Katjirra (Bush Raisins). Photo courtesy Sabbia Gallery.

As Bruce McLean, Curator of Indigenous Australian Art at QAGOMA, says in his Clay Stories catalogue essay: “Indigenous Australian pottery and ceramics have a long and proud tradition within the canon of Indigenous Australian art history. Although many overlook the medium and misunderstand its historical importance, it has played a pivotal role in the establishment of many Indigenous art centres and the Indigenous art industry as a whole”.

Work by Rupert Jack, 2017. Photo courtesy Sabbia Gallery.

Work by Rupert Jack, 2017. Photo courtesy Sabbia Gallery.

Work by Alison MIlyika Carroll, 2017. Photo courtesy Sabbia Gallery.

Work by Alison MIlyika Carroll, 2017. Photo courtesy Sabbia Gallery.

The exhibition includes artists working through five remote art centres: Ernabella Arts, Tiwi Design, Girrigun Aboriginal Art Centre, Erub Arts, and Hermannsburg Potters. Each of these centres has a substantial history of ceramic practice, some dating back to the early 1970s. Ernabella (near the borders of South Australia and the Northern Territory) is home to the oldest continuously-running Indigenous art centre in Australia and has been operating Pukatja Pottery since 1998.

The Tully River, Girrigun in Far North Queensland. Photo courtesy Valerie Keenan.

The Tully River, Girrigun in Far North Queensland. Photo courtesy Valerie Keenan.

Bathurst Island coastline, Tiwi Islands, Northern Territory. Photo courtesy Tiwi Design.

Bathurst Island coastline, Tiwi Islands, Northern Territory. Photo courtesy Tiwi Design.

Just ‘up the road’ (approximately 550 kilometres north of Ernabella), the Hermannsburg Potters have been pursuing their own idiosyncratic and highly sought-after ceramic tradition for decades. On the Tiwi Islands, in the community of Girrigun in Far North Queensland, and on Darnley Island in the Torres Strait Islands, entirely distinctive approaches to clay-making have been underway for many years. As Sabbia Gallery Curator, Anna Grigson, told us, “We soon realised that there was a very interesting movement happening within many of these art centres, and mostly in quite remote communities, who had difficulties accessing the broader public to show their work”.

The artists in Clay Stories come to their ceramic practice from multiple perspectives. Some depict animals, plants and landscapes local to their homes; others evoke important ancestral stories. Anna says, “The Bagus from Girrungun Aboriginal Art Centre [for example] have their basis in traditional fire making implements…the Bagu was originally made in wood rather than clay”. Tiwi artist Jock Puatjimi makes marks and incisions on his clay forms, using traditional patterns and drawing on his background of as a carver and printmaker.

Emily Murray, Bagu 2017. Girrungun Aboriginal Art Centre. Photo courtesy Sabbia Gallery.

Emily Murray, Bagu 2017. Girrungun Aboriginal Art Centre. Photo courtesy Sabbia Gallery.

Emily Murray, Bunyaydinya Bagu 2017. Girrungun Aboriginal Art Centre. Photo courtesy Sabbia Gallery.

Emily Murray, Bunyaydinya Bagu 2017. Girrungun Aboriginal Art Centre. Photo courtesy Sabbia Gallery.

Clay Stories is an important exhibition. It brings together a diverse group of artists to present an overview of contemporary Indigenous ceramic practice today. It also brings attention to a little-known aspect of Indigenous art history. With tour venues across the country through 2017-18, it’s well worth a visit.

Tiwi artist Jock Puautjimi hunting for turtle eggs, Bathurst Island, Northern Territory. Photo courtesy Tiwi Design.

Tiwi artist Jock Puautjimi hunting for turtle eggs, Bathurst Island, Northern Territory. Photo courtesy Tiwi Design.

Artist Jimmy Kenny Thaiday at Erub Arts. Photo courtesy Erub Arts.

Artist Jimmy Kenny Thaiday at Erub Arts. Photo courtesy Erub Arts.

Clay Stories is on until 10 December at Jam Factory, Seppeltsfield. There are currently six tour venues confirmed across NSW, ACT, QLD, SA and NT, with more to be announced.  See www.claystories.com for more information.

This post first appeared on The Design Files on 10 November 2017.

Erub Arts located on Darnley Island Torres Strait. Photo courtesy Lynnette Griffiths and Erub Arts.

Erub Arts located on Darnley Island Torres Strait. Photo courtesy Lynnette Griffiths and Erub Arts.

Mavis Ngallametta: colour and alchemy by Jess Booth

Mavis Ngallametta painting large-scale work. Photo: Gina Allain.

Mavis Ngallametta painting large-scale work. Photo: Gina Allain.

Mavis Ngallametta’s large-scale paintings, a selection of which were exhibited at Martin Browne Contemporary in Sydney recently, are both derived from, and imbued with, the material richness of her natural environment. Incorporating white ochres from the cliffs of Ikalath on the west coast of the Cape York Peninsula, mixing fecund greens from a combination of yellow ochre pigment and charcoal - Mavis is both a master colourist and an alchemist of sorts. Her bountiful and interwoven depictions of the waterways, geological formations and flora around Aurukun show her to be a painter of great vision and complexity.

Mavis Ngallametta, My Country - Kendall River 2017, natural ochres and charcoal with acrylic binder on linen, 201 x 272cm. © Mavis Ngallametta. Image courtesy the artist and Martin Browne Contemporary.

Mavis Ngallametta, My Country - Kendall River 2017, natural ochres and charcoal with acrylic binder on linen, 201 x 272cm. © Mavis Ngallametta. Image courtesy the artist and Martin Browne Contemporary.

Mavis Ngallametta in front of Kendall River, 2012. Photo: Martin Browne.

Mavis Ngallametta in front of Kendall River, 2012. Photo: Martin Browne.

Mavis Ngallametta collecting white ochre, Ikalath. Photo: Martin Browne.

Mavis Ngallametta collecting white ochre, Ikalath. Photo: Martin Browne.

Like a number of prominent female Indigenous artists, Mavis began her career as a weaver. Taught by senior Wik and Kugu women on country and at the mission school, she became proficient in, and renowned for, creating mats, baskets and dilly bags from cabbage palm and pandanus. In 2009 she became involved with Ghost Nets Australia, a movement spearheaded by Indigenous communities to bring attention to the plastic fishing nets killing marine life and making landfall on beaches around Northern Australia. The project eloquently marries artistic and environmental concerns in the creation of beautiful sculptures woven from discarded nets. In 2008 Mavis began experimenting with painting, participating in a workshop at the Wik and Kugu Art Centre run by facilitator Gina Allain. Relatively quickly she began working in two dimensions with natural ochres and charcoals.

Whilst not prolific - she has completed less than 40 large scale paintings in the last seven years - Mavis’ output has been impressively consistent in terms of quality (almost a quarter of those works have been acquired by public institutions such as Queensland Art Gallery’s Gallery of Modern Art, National Gallery of Australia and the Art Gallery of NSW) and artistic vision. Despite her success, Mavis’ achievements have been quietly won - her luscious, multi-layered works are still unknown to many.

Mavis Ngallametta, Pundum 2016, natural ochres and charcoal with acrylic binder on linen, 270 x 199cm. ©Mavis Ngallametta. Image courtesy the artist and Martin Browne Contemporary.

Mavis Ngallametta, Pundum 2016, natural ochres and charcoal with acrylic binder on linen, 270 x 199cm. ©Mavis Ngallametta. Image courtesy the artist and Martin Browne Contemporary.

Mavis Ngallametta, Small Horse Creek 2017, natural ochres and charcoal with acrylic binder on linen, 272 x 201cm. ©Mavis Ngallametta. Image courtesy the artist and Martin Browne Contemporary.

Mavis Ngallametta, Small Horse Creek 2017, natural ochres and charcoal with acrylic binder on linen, 272 x 201cm. ©Mavis Ngallametta. Image courtesy the artist and Martin Browne Contemporary.

Mavis depicts her traditional country of Kendall River, but also draws inspiration from other places around Aurukun where she lives. “At the moment I love painting the swamps and swampy areas”, Mavis says, in conversation with Gina Allain.

“If you come to Aurukun you will see lots of swamps with a lot of water lilies, lots of birds and lots of different coloured swamp flowers.”

Swampy Area at Yalgamungken 2017, depicts the flowers and birds that appear at the end of the dry season at Yalgamungken, where she collects her yellow ochre.

Swampy landscape around Aurukun, Cape York Peninsula in Far North Queensland. Photo: Gina Allain.

Swampy landscape around Aurukun, Cape York Peninsula in Far North Queensland. Photo: Gina Allain.

Mavis Ngallametta, Swampy Area at Yalgamungken 2017, natural ochres and charcoal with acrylic binder on linen, 272 x 201cm © Mavis Ngallametta. Image courtesy the artist and Martin Browne Contemporary.

Mavis Ngallametta, Swampy Area at Yalgamungken 2017, natural ochres and charcoal with acrylic binder on linen, 272 x 201cm © Mavis Ngallametta. Image courtesy the artist and Martin Browne Contemporary.

Mavis Ngallametta, Low Down Swamp 2016, natural ochres and charcoal with acrylic binder on linen, 270 x 199cm © Mavis Ngallametta. Image courtesy the artist and Martin Browne Contemporary.

Mavis Ngallametta, Low Down Swamp 2016, natural ochres and charcoal with acrylic binder on linen, 270 x 199cm © Mavis Ngallametta. Image courtesy the artist and Martin Browne Contemporary.

Swampy landscape around Aurukun, Cape York Peninsula in Far North Queensland. Photo: Gina Allain.

Swampy landscape around Aurukun, Cape York Peninsula in Far North Queensland. Photo: Gina Allain.

Mavis Ngallametta fishing. Photo: Gina Allain.

Mavis Ngallametta fishing. Photo: Gina Allain.

Works begin with a blue acrylic base colour - the blue of the Arafura Sea surrounding Cape York. From there, the painting is made from the landscape. Mavis says:

“I can make many colours from the yellow, red, black and white [ochres]... I mix the yellow ochre with the black…from the charcoal and I get greens. I mix the red and yellow and I get oranges. If I mix the white clay with the red ochre I get pink… I cook the yellow ochre to get the red and depending on the length of time you cook it, and the colour of the yellow that I have collected, it makes different shades of red.”
Mavis Ngallametta painting large scale work. Photo: Gina Allain.

Mavis Ngallametta painting large scale work. Photo: Gina Allain.

Her environmental concerns, so powerfully expressed in her ghost net weavings, are sometimes present in Mavis’ paintings too, with the fishing nets and oil drums that wash up on the beach at Aurukun incorporated into her densely painted compositions. The presence of this unwanted detritus is jarring alongside depictions of wetlands in full flourish, and reminds us that for artists like Mavis to continue their relationship with these bountiful ecosystems, they need protection.

This post first appeared on The Design Files on 10 October 2017.

Mavis Ngallametta, Ikalath #6 2012, natural ochres and charcoal with acrylic binder on linen, 276 x 195cm. ©Mavis Ngallametta. Image courtesy the artist and Martin Browne Contemporary.

Mavis Ngallametta, Ikalath #6 2012, natural ochres and charcoal with acrylic binder on linen, 276 x 195cm. ©Mavis Ngallametta. Image courtesy the artist and Martin Browne Contemporary.

Tjigila Nada Rawlins: Living Water by Jess Booth

Nada Rawlins, Fitzroy Crossing, Western Australia, 2003. Photo: Stephen Dupont

Nada Rawlins, Fitzroy Crossing, Western Australia, 2003. Photo: Stephen Dupont

I was born in the Great Sandy Desert. My mother never put me in a blanket. I never saw my father. We walked from the desert along the Canning Stock Route. We walked because we had no motorcar. We carried our swags on our heads.

To provide some context for this incredible statement on the Mangkaja Arts website, the Canning Stock Route is almost 2000 kilometres in length and traverses three deserts — the Great Sandy, the Little Sandy and the Gibson, in northern Western Australia. Tjigila Nada Rawlins is one of a generation of Indigenous people whose livelihoods have centred around understanding the elusive yet bountiful offerings of these hot, harsh, desert climates.

Nada Rawlins, Linjalangu 2017, acrylic on perspex, 60 x 90cm. Photo: Mangkaja Arts.

Nada Rawlins, Linjalangu 2017, acrylic on perspex, 60 x 90cm. Photo: Mangkaja Arts.

A highly sought-after and idiosyncratic painter, Nada works through Indigenous-owned and operated Mangkaja Arts in Fitzroy Crossing. Her paintings are distinctive, robust and highly saturated interpretations of her country.

Nada was born about 1936 near Kirriwirri, in the southern stretches of Wangkatjungka country. Nada’s family, traditional owners of this part of the desert, are expert at sourcing fresh water from the Percival lakes, a chain of warla (salt lakes) spanning hundreds of kilometres. Nada paints the warla, the jilas (living freshwater holes) and the jilji (sandhills). Stripes and long lines represent “the places she walked with her family as a young girl” (Mangkaja Arts).

A dingo on the salt lakes of Warla, 1990s. Photo: Mangkaja Arts.

A dingo on the salt lakes of Warla, 1990s. Photo: Mangkaja Arts.

Nada’s career is long and varied. She began painting in the 1980s at Fitzroy Crossing’s Karrayili Adult Education Centre. When the Mangkaja Arts centre was built, she began working there, largely teaching herself through observation of other artists.

Recently Nada has begun experimenting with acrylic paint and paint pens on Perspex, with very exciting results. She won the Shinju Art Prize in Broome for her first piece on Perspex in 2016, and this year has another Perspex piece in the National Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander Art Awards, currently on show at the Museum and Art Gallery of the Northern Territory.

Nada Rawlins working on a Perspex work, 2017. Photo: Mangkaja Arts.

Nada Rawlins working on a Perspex work, 2017. Photo: Mangkaja Arts.

Nada Rawlins, Yimirri 2017, acrylic on canvas, 90 x 90cm. Photo: Mangkaja Arts.

Nada Rawlins, Yimirri 2017, acrylic on canvas, 90 x 90cm. Photo: Mangkaja Arts.

Nada is now quite elderly, but her output belies this fact – she creates work with incredible energy and pulse. This dynamism seems borne out of her intimate knowledge of her country’s wealth and abundance. Speaking of one of her homeland’s key waterholes, Nada says: “This is Kirriwirri Jila… The water never dries up in this jila – this is living water” (Japingka Aboriginal Art).

Historical image of Nada on a trip to Warla – the salt lakes in her country – in the 1990s. Photo: Mangkaja Arts.

Historical image of Nada on a trip to Warla – the salt lakes in her country – in the 1990s. Photo: Mangkaja Arts.

Nada Rawlins, Yimirri 2017, acrylic on canvas, 60 x 90cm. Photo: Mangkaja Arts.

Nada Rawlins, Yimirri 2017, acrylic on canvas, 60 x 90cm. Photo: Mangkaja Arts.

Nada’s work is available through Mangkaja Arts, as well as a number of commercial galleries including Vivien Anderson Gallery (Melbourne), McCulloch & McCulloch (Victoria), ReDot Gallery (Singapore) and Outstation Gallery (Darwin).
 
Thanks to Nada’s daughter Nita Williams and Mangkaja Arts director Jennifer Dickens, who sat down together to talk through these questions with Nada. Thanks also to Belinda Cook for her assistance with this piece.

This post first appeared on The Design Files on 14 September 2017.

Nada Rawlins painting with Mangkaja artists at Warla, 1996. Photo: Mangkaja Arts.

Nada Rawlins painting with Mangkaja artists at Warla, 1996. Photo: Mangkaja Arts.

The Artists of Ampilatwatja: a film project by Jess Booth

(L-R): Colleen Ngwarraye Morton, Rosie Ngwarraye Ross, Margaret Kemarre Ross and Beverly Pula Luck searching for bush medicine. Image courtesy Lara Damiani.

(L-R): Colleen Ngwarraye Morton, Rosie Ngwarraye Ross, Margaret Kemarre Ross and Beverly Pula Luck searching for bush medicine. Image courtesy Lara Damiani.

Documentary film maker Lara Damiani of Think Films has made a name for herself capturing the stories of people and communities. Working with NGOs, international aid and humanitarian organisations, "and others with a passion for social development and social justice", Damiani's work often takes her to remote places. In 2010 Ampilatwatja became one of those places, when she embarked upon a journey to the Central Desert that has culminated in a series of short films about the artists of Artists of Ampilatwatja. We were excited to learn of Damiani's work with the artists, two of which - Colleen Ngwarraye Morton and Rosie Ngwarraye Ross - are behind our Ampilatwatja Collection of fabrics and wallpapers.

In 2010 Damiani made her first trip out to Ampilatwatja after learning about a 'walk-off' staged by residents of the community in response to the Northern Territory Government's intervention. After this introduction to Ampilatwatja, she discovered another event in that community's history - the 1949 'walk-off' in which Alyawarr elder Banjo Morton and a host of other Indigenous stockmen demanded fair wages in return for their labour at the Lake Nash Cattle Station. Drawn to this important but little known piece of post-colonial history, Damiani created 'Meet Banjo'

Through this work Damiani has come to know many of the women of Ampilatwatja. On her 2014 trip to the community she began filming artist Lily Kemarre Morton painting and telling the stories within her work. Damiani was inspired to obtain funding through the NT Government and returned in 2016 to begin filming the artists in earnest.

 

"Most of the artists paint Arreth, which translates to ‘strong bush medicine’, demonstrating a deep connection to country. For the Alyawarr people, their land has provided and sustained for generations. The paintings pay homage to the significance and use of traditional bush medicine, allowing an insight into their community."

Artists of Ampilatwatja

 

The photo essay below captures a trip Damiani took with the artists, in which she learned more about the various bush medicine plants and their uses.

Links to the seven wonderful films, with animation by Karu Karu Studio, can be found after these images. We would like to thank Lara for her generosity in supplying the imagery and background information for this piece.

Artist Colleen Ngwarraye Morton showing some traditional bush medicine. Image courtesy Lara Damiani.

Artist Colleen Ngwarraye Morton showing some traditional bush medicine. Image courtesy Lara Damiani.

Filming artist Daisy Kemarre Moss telling the story of her painting, outside of Ampilatwatja. Image courtesy Lara Damiani

Filming artist Daisy Kemarre Moss telling the story of her painting, outside of Ampilatwatja. Image courtesy Lara Damiani

Artist Kathleen Nanima Rambler showing a traditional comb - women used this to brush their hair. Image courtesy Lara Damiani.

Artist Kathleen Nanima Rambler showing a traditional comb - women used this to brush their hair. Image courtesy Lara Damiani.

Artist Daisy Kemarre Moss with some traditional bush food / berries. Image courtesy Lara Damiani

Artist Daisy Kemarre Moss with some traditional bush food / berries. Image courtesy Lara Damiani

Artists Margaret Kemarre Ross (left) and Beverly Pula Luck (right). Image courtesy Lara Damiani.

Artists Margaret Kemarre Ross (left) and Beverly Pula Luck (right). Image courtesy Lara Damiani.

Damiani's film on Rosie Ngwarraye Ross, creator of Willie Weston's Sugarbag Dreaming design, is below:

Margaret Rarru: 'black is beautiful' by Jess Booth

Margaret Rarru’s Bathi Mul (black dilly bags) on the beach of Milingimbi Island. Photo: Milingimbi Art and Culture.

Margaret Rarru’s Bathi Mul (black dilly bags) on the beach of Milingimbi Island. Photo: Milingimbi Art and Culture.

Margaret Rarru Garrawurra – or Rarru, as she’s known around her home of Milingimbi – reckons she was “a good sized yothu (kid / teenager)” when she first started to weave. Rarru sat down with her Ngama (Mother) and Mukul (aunties) and learnt to make the bathi (dilly bags) that generations of women have produced across Arnhem Land. At the time Rarru was living at the mission on Elcho Island, and was also taught coil basketry by the balanda (white) ladies there. Throughout her career, Rarru has effortlessly incorporated both these techniques into her practice.

Margaret Rarru. Photo: Milingimbi Art and Culture.

Margaret Rarru. Photo: Milingimbi Art and Culture.

These days Rarru lives between Langarra (Howard Island) and Yurrwi (Milingimbi Island), around 400 kilometres east of Darwin. As well as being a masterful weaver, Rarru is also an acclaimed painter. In 2007 she was awarded the bark painting prize at the Telstra National Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander Art Awards, and a number of her paintings are held in the collections of the National Gallery of Victoria and the Queensland Art Gallery.

Rarru is famous in some circles for her Madonna Bra and Madonna Bag series, inspired by Madonna’s 1980s video clips. Photo: Milingimbi Art and Culture.

Rarru is famous in some circles for her Madonna Bra and Madonna Bag series, inspired by Madonna’s 1980s video clips. Photo: Milingimbi Art and Culture.

When Rarru isn’t weaving she’s collecting gunga (pandanus) and balgurr (bark for making string). The gunga is stripped of its prickly edges, peeled in half, dried in the sun and dyed in a pot over a fire with roots, leaves or other natural materials, depending on the colour being created. Once dyed the gunga is dried again before it is ready to be woven. When dyed black, the gunga has a beautiful, warm charcoal tone, which is characteristic of Rarru’s incredible bathi mul (black dilly bags).

A Yothu Bathi (baby basket) by Margaret Rarru. Photo: Milingimbi Art and Culture.

A Yothu Bathi (baby basket) by Margaret Rarru. Photo: Milingimbi Art and Culture.

Rarru has gained international recognition for her bathi mul, created with this natural dyed black gunga. These works “exemplify Rarru's outstanding understanding of form”, says Rosita Holmes, Studio Coordinator at Milingimbi Art and Culture. The bathi mul demonstrate Rarru’s sophisticated and somewhat minimalist design aesthetic, whilst being contemporary manifestations of an enduring weaving practice. Rarru says she loves making bathi mul because “black is beautiful”. We couldn’t agree more.

Robin Galitjbirr and Sonya Djndjarrngu modelling Rarru’s incredible Madonna Bras and Bags! Photo: Milingimbi Art and Culture.

Robin Galitjbirr and Sonya Djndjarrngu modelling Rarru’s incredible Madonna Bras and Bags! Photo: Milingimbi Art and Culture.

Thanks to Rosita Holmes, Chris Durkin and Helen Milminydjarrk for their assistance with this piece.

Margaret Rarru is busy! She is currently exhibiting as part of Walma / Moon Rise at Koskela Gallery, Sydney (29 July – 27 August 2017), will be Milingimbi Art and Culture’s feature artist at this year’s Darwin Aboriginal Art Fair (11-13 August 2017) and has work in upcoming exhibitions at the Embassy of Australia, Washington DC, USA, Wooloongabba Art Gallery, Queensland and the University of NSW Gallery, Sydney.

This post first appeared on The Design Files on 3 August 2017.

On left: Puna Yanima, Antara, ink on paper, 152 x 135cm, courtesy Mimili Maku Arts. (Bathi L-R): Margaret Rarru, Bathi mul, pandanus fibre, bush string and natural dyes, 34 x 21cm; Helen Ganalmirriwuy, Bathi mul, pandanus fibre, bush string and natural dyes, 29 x 17cm; Margaret Rarru, Bathi mul, pandanus fibre, bush string and natural dyes, 30 x 17cm. All works courtesy Milingimbi Art and Culture. Photo: Koskela.

On left: Puna Yanima, Antara, ink on paper, 152 x 135cm, courtesy Mimili Maku Arts. (Bathi L-R): Margaret Rarru, Bathi mul, pandanus fibre, bush string and natural dyes, 34 x 21cm; Helen Ganalmirriwuy, Bathi mul, pandanus fibre, bush string and natural dyes, 29 x 17cm; Margaret Rarru, Bathi mul, pandanus fibre, bush string and natural dyes, 30 x 17cm. All works courtesy Milingimbi Art and Culture. Photo: Koskela.